Let's stop at the first point and address some of the effects of global warming. One of the main effects is the rise in average temperatures and extreme weather. The average global temperature has increased by about 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit (0.8 degrees Celsius) over the past 100 years, according to scientists. 16 of the 17 warmest years recorded have occurred since 2001, and the hottest year was 2016 on record globally, according to NASA.
Global warming may also lead to extreme weather other than cold or heat extremes. For example, hurricane formations will change. It is more likely to become less frequent on a global basis, although the hurricanes that form may be more intense.
Lightening is another weather feature that is being affected by global warming. According to a 2014 study, a 50 % increase in the number of lightning strikes is expected by 2100 if global temperatures continue to rise.
Melting ice and sea levels is a noticeable effect in recent years. One of the most dramatic effects is the reduction of Arctic sea ice. Sea ice hit record-low extents in both the fall and winter of 2015 and 2016, meaning that at the time when the ice is supposed to be at its peak, it was lagging. According to a 2016 study, there is a 99 % probability that this rapid melting is due to climate change caused by humans. The melting of polar ice in the Arctic and Antarctic regions is expected to significantly raise sea levels. If greenhouse gas emissions and waste dumping remain uncontrolled, global sea levels will continue to rise dramatically. If current trends continue, many coastal areas, where approximately half of the Earth's human population lives, will be flooded.
Many species of plants and animals are already moving their range northward or to higher altitudes as a result of warming temperatures. Because of this, many animals may not be able to compete in the new climate regime and may go extinct. Warmer temperatures will also expand the range of many disease-causing pathogens that were once confined to tropical and subtropical areas, killing off plant and animal species that formerly were protected from disease. These and other effects of global warming will likely contribute to the disappearance of up to one-half of Earth's plants and one-third of animals.